Patent Litigation in Qatar: Overview

Thomson Reuters

Patent Litigation in Qatar: Overview
by Bahia Alyafi and Lea Feghali, Alyafi IP Group
Country Q&A | Law stated as at 01-May-2022 | Qatar

A Q&A guide to patent litigation in Qatar.
This Q&A gives a high-level overview of patent disputes, including sources of law, court systems, substantive law, parties to litigation, enforcement options, competition and anti-trust issues, procedure in civil courts, preliminary relief, final remedies, appeal procedure, litigation costs, and standard essential patents (SEPs), fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND) licensing, and anti-suit injunctions.

Sources of Law

1. What are the principal sources of law and regulation relating to patents and patent litigation?

Local Law
Local law is mainly derived from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Patent Law, which is in turn derived from Sharia law. The following other local laws are relevant:

• Patent Law No. 30/2006.

• Decree No. 53/2009 to establish the Centre for the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights.

• Penal Code No. 11/2004.

• Commercial Law No. 5/2002.

• Commercial Code No. 27/2006.

• Consumer Protection Law No. 8/2008.

• Competition Law No. 19/2006.

• Ministerial Decision No. 410/2014.

• Customs Law No. 40/2002.

• Trade Marks, Trade Names, Geographical Indications and Industrial Designs Law No.9/2002.

• Copyrights and Related Rights Law No. 7/2002.

• Protection of Secrets of Trade Law No. 5/2005.

• Protection of Layout Designs of Integrated Circuits Law No. 6/2005.

• Electronic Commerce and Transactions Law No. 16/2010.

There are no special laws governing pharmaceutical or software patents. The Patent Law provides that computer programs, among others, are not patentable.
Amendments to the GCC Patent Law adopted in 2021 introduced a new GCC patent filing system, which is detailed in Implementing Regulations published in November 2021. The GCC Patent Office (GCCPO) stopped accepting new applications from 6 January 2021 until further notice. It is still unclear when the GCCPO will resume accepting applications and whether Qatar will take part in the new filing system.

International Law
Qatar is a party to many international treaties related to patents, including the:

  • WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights 1994 (TRIPs).
  • Patent Cooperation Treaty 1970 (PCT).
  • Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 1883 (Paris Convention).
However, local laws and ministerial decrees take precedence over regional and international law (see above, Local Law).
 

Court System

2. In which courts/government bodies are patents enforced?
There are no specialist patent courts in Qatar. The court competent to hear the dispute will depend on the case, the procedure, and whether there are criminal proceedings.
The Patent Office at the Ministry of Economy and Commerce has jurisdiction in invalidation proceedings. Civil and criminal courts deal with infringement proceedings. The judicial system in Qatar is inexperienced with intellectual property disputes.
Qatar is a member state of the GCC and therefore recognises GCC patents filed before January 2021 (see Question 1, Local Law). GCC-filed patents are examined, and granted or refused in Saudi Arabia, where the GCC Patent Office is located.
Any interested party can apply to the competent Qatari authorities to revoke a patent registered in Qatar (Article 20, Patent Law No. 30 of 2006). However, when a claim involves an international or cross-border element, the Qatari courts can seek assistance from other courts under the principles of comity of law. Cross-border claims involving GCC countries are easier to handle between local and regional courts.
 
3. Do the courts/government bodies deal with infringement, invalidity and unenforceability simultaneously or must invalidity and/or unenforceability actions be brought in separate proceedings?
Infringement, invalidity, and unenforceability actions must be filed separately. Invalidity and unenforceability actions must be filed with the Ministry of Economy and Commerce. Infringement actions must be filed with the relevant court authorities (see Question 2).
 
4. Who can represent parties before the court and/or government body?
Lawyers can represent parties before the court and the Ministry of Economy and Commerce. Patent agents can represent parties before the Ministry of Economy and Commerce.
 
5. What is the language of the proceedings? Is there a choice of language?
All proceedings and supplementary documents must be in Arabic.
 
6. To what extent are courts willing to consider, or bound by, the opinions of other national or foreign courts, or other national or international bodies, that have handed down decisions in similar cases?
Qatar is a member state of the GCC. Therefore, the courts in Qatar are influenced by opinions of courts in other GCC countries (such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Bahrain). As Qatari patent law is relatively new and evolving, decisions of foreign courts or international bodies can have a significant impact on local decisions. However, local courts are not bound by foreign and international decisions.

Substantive Law

7. What does the claimant have to establish in a patent infringement claim?
The burden of proof is prescribed by Article 211 of the Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure No. 13 of 1990, under which a party must prove the facts that supports its case. Once all items of evidence are submitted, the judge, who is the finder of fact, studies the case and determines whether to consider the evidence provided.
The courts assess patent infringement based on their experience and compare the genuine and infringed products. Their assessment also depends on the evidence provided by the patent holder. Qatari patent law recognises the doctrine of equivalents. However, as local courts have limited experience, and the availability of expert witnesses is limited, this doctrine is not applied consistently.
Indirect infringement is a cause of action available to a patent holder in Qatar. Any person who participates in the commission of an offence is punishable by the penalty prescribed for that offence (Article 40, Penal Code).
 
8. What defences are available to an alleged infringer?
The sole statutory defence available to an alleged infringer is prior use (Article 10, GCC Patent Law) (although this defence will no longer be available if Qatar decides not to adopt the new GCC Law (see Question 1, Local Law)). The defence is available to alleged infringers that manufacture the patented product, use the patent technique, or undertake serious arrangements to manufacture or use the patented product before the registration or priority date of the patent. This right cannot be assigned or transferred.
The GCC Patent Law does not specify the statute of limitations for patent infringement claims. Claims relating to personal rights are prescribed after the lapse of a 15-year period, except where otherwise provided by law (Article 403, Civil Code No. 22/2004). This limitation period also applies to patent infringement claims.
 
9. On what grounds can a patent be invalidated?
A patent granted by the Qatar Patent Office can only be invalidated if it violates public order, ethical standards, or national security. There is no clear definition of public order or ethical standards. Therefore, these concepts are applied loosely and their application is subject to change.
Invalidity claims must be brought before the Patent Office (see Question 2).
 
10. Can a court only partially invalidate a patent or transform it into a utility model?
The local courts cannot partially invalidate a patent or transform it into a utility model.
 
11. Is it possible to amend patent claims during enforcement proceedings?
It is not possible to amend patent claims during proceedings.
 
12. Are there any grounds on which an otherwise valid patent can be deemed unenforceable?
A valid patent can be deemed unenforceable in the following circumstances:
  • The patent holder fails to pay the required annual fees to maintain the patent.
  • Due to a change in local public policy.
  • Against a prior user of the patent (see Question 8).

Parties to Litigation

13. Who can sue for patent infringement?

Patent Holder

A patent owner can sue for patent infringement.

Co-Owner

A patent co-owner can sue for patent infringement in its own name, unless otherwise provided by any agreement between the co-owners.

Exclusive Licensee

For a licensee (exclusive or non-exclusive) to be eligible to sue for a patent infringement:
  • The licence must provide for the licensee's right to sue.
  • The licence must be registered with the Ministry of Economy and Commerce.

Non-Exclusive Licensee

See above, Exclusive Licensee.

Distributor

A distributor can sue for a patent infringement if this right is contained in the distribution contract. The distribution agreement must also be registered with the Ministry of Economy and Commerce to enforce the rights related to the exploitation of the patent.
For a distributor to be eligible to sue for a patent infringement:
  • The distribution agreement must provide for the distributor's right to sue.
  • The distribution agreement must be registered with the Ministry of Economy and Commerce.

Other

Compulsory licence holders (obtained in cases where the patent holder has failed to use/exploit its patent) can also sue for patent infringement, as they are entitled to use the rights of the patent holder to protect and exploit the patent.
 
14. Under what conditions, if any, can an alleged infringer bring proceedings to obtain a declaratory judgment on non-infringement or invalidity/unenforceability?
An alleged infringer cannot bring proceedings to obtain a declaratory judgment on non-infringement or invalidity/unenforceability.
 
15. Who can be sued for patent infringement?
Any person who infringes a patent can be sued for patent infringement. Whether directors and shareholders can be sued personally depends on the type of enterprise and structure of the company. There is currently no law relating to contributory infringement, although there is no provision preventing proceedings against contributory infringers.
 
16. Is it possible to add or remove parties during litigation?
It is possible to add or remove parties during litigation, subject to the court's permission. The parties must ensure that any changes are explained to the court in detail.
Any interested person can join a lawsuit or claim a remedy connected with the lawsuit (Article 78, Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure No. 13 of 1990). The joinder application must:
  • Comply with the general procedure for filing lawsuits.
  • Be filed before the close of pleadings.
A joinder application can also be made orally in the presence of the parties.
The court will decide on any dispute relating to acceptance of the joinder. The court must, whenever possible, decide on joinder applications together with the original lawsuit. Otherwise the court must reserve the joinder application for judgment after issuing a decision in the original lawsuit.

Enforcement Options

17. What options are open to a patent holder when seeking to enforce its rights in your jurisdiction?

Civil Proceedings

Civil actions are governed by Articles 199, 200 and 201 of the Civil Code.
The patent holder can lodge an action before the competent civil court to prohibit the continuation of the infringement and lodge an action for damages. The competent civil court can order the:
  • Confiscation of the seized products.
  • Closure of the infringing enterprise for a period of between 15 days and six months.
  • Destruction of the counterfeit or imitated products, even in the event of acquittal.

Criminal Proceedings

Criminal proceedings against the infringer are available. Without prejudice to any more severe penalties under any other law, the following persons can be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years and/or a fine of up to USD2,750:
  • Any person who counterfeits an invention or a manufacturing technique.
  • Any person who intentionally trespasses on a right protected by patent law.
  • Any person who fraudulently makes use of counterfeit or imitated patents.
(Article 47, Penal Code.)
The criminal court can order the:
  • Publication of the judgment in one or more newspapers at the expense of the convicted party.
  • Confiscation of the equipment and material used in the counterfeiting or imitation and the confiscation of the counterfeit or imitated products, even in the event of acquittal.
  • Closure of the infringing enterprise for a period of between 15 days and six months.

Border Measures

Border measures and custom seizures are available. The holder of intellectual property rights who has any information about the importation of infringed products can file an application at the Customs Offices requesting the seizure of counterfeit imported items. For this process to run smoothly, the applicant requesting seizure must provide substantial and reasonable proof regarding the counterfeit products.
 
18. Is it compulsory to provide notice to an alleged infringer before commencing patent proceedings?
It is not compulsory to provide notice to an alleged infringer before commencing patent proceedings.
There are no specific consequences for making unjustified threats of patent infringement.
 
19. To what extent do courts have jurisdiction or power to grant cross-border or extra-territorial injunctions (preliminary or permanent)?
Cross-border or extra-territorial injunctions from GCC countries are automatically enforced. If a cross-border or extra-territorial injunctions relates to a jurisdiction that grants reciprocity to Qatar, the application will be assessed by the local courts based on local and Sharia law.
Injunctions granted by Qatari courts have an immediate effect in GCC countries and other countries on the basis of reciprocity.
 
20. To what extent do courts recognise the blocking effect of "torpedo" actions abroad (proceedings between the same parties concerning the same subject matter that are pending in another jurisdiction)?
The local courts do not recognise the blocking effect of ''torpedo'' actions abroad.
 
21. To what extent are arbitration and alternative dispute resolution (ADR) methods (such as mediation) available to resolve patent disputes?

Arbitration

Arbitration can only be used to resolve matters for which conciliation is available (Article 190, Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure). Accordingly, disputes relating to patents are arbitrable if they do not relate to non-disposable rights, public order, or public policy.
The main arbitration organisations used for resolving disputes in Qatar are the:
  • Qatar International Centre for Conciliation and Arbitration, which is a part of the Qatar Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
  • Qatar International Court and Dispute Resolution Centre.
Qatar is a party to the UN Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards 1958 (New York Convention) and enforces foreign arbitral awards in accordance with the Convention.

ADR

ADR has recently become available in Qatar. However, to date, ADR has not been used in patent disputes, including patent invalidation disputes.

Competition and Anti-Trust

22. Can a patent holder bring proceedings claiming both patent infringement and unfair competition for the same set of facts?
A patent holder can bring proceedings claiming both patent infringement and unfair competition using the same set of facts. However, each claim must be filed independently.
A patent holder can claim unfair competition on the following grounds:
  • To prevent others from using their intellectual property in a way that may mislead the public or create confusion about products or related processes (Article 36, Trade Marks, Trade Names, Geographical Indications and Industrial Designs Law).
  • To prevent a trader from resorting to fraud and cheating to sell their goods or from publishing information that can harm a competitor's interest (Article 69, Commercial Code).
  • To prevent a trader from:
    • disseminating false information or matters about the source, description, or scale of their merchandise;
    • falsely claiming to have obtained a certificate or reward; or
    • resorting to any means of misleading for the purpose of competing with another trader to attract their clients.
(Article 70, Commercial Code.)
 
23. To what extent can enforcement of a patent expose the patent holder to liability for an anti-trust violation?
The essential principles of the Competition Law are to protect and encourage fair competition, combat monopolistic practices, and protect consumers from price surges. The Law applies to all business entities operating in the Qatari market, except for public establishments owned by the state.
The probability that the enforcement of a patent can lead to an anti-trust violation is very slim in Qatar and depends on the conduct of the patent holder in the exploitation of the patent.

Procedure in Civil Courts

24. What are the main stages of patent infringement proceedings?
The main stages of patent infringement proceedings in Qatar are as follows:
  • Phase 1. This involves filing a petition with the competent civil court that handles urgent matters, to seek an order for the appropriate preventive measures, including in particular:
    • obtaining a detailed descriptive inventory of the counterfeit products that the infringer is trading with; and
    • seizure of the products, subject to the petitioner submitting a deposit to the registrar of the court to prove the seriousness of the petition.
    The court can order the appointment of one or more experts to assist with the preparation of the inventory and taking the preventive measures.
  • Phase 2. The petitioner has ten days from the date of the order to commence a civil or criminal action against the infringer (Article 46, Civil Code). All disputed issues are decided by judges. If no action is taken, any preventive measures become null and void. On conclusion of the claim, the court can order:
    • the judgment to be published in one or more newspapers at the expense of the convicted party;
    • the closure of the convicted party's enterprise for a period of between 15 days and six months; and
    • the confiscation of the equipment and material used in the counterfeiting or imitation, even if the alleged infringer is acquitted.
The above are standard rules that govern general proceedings in Qatar and do not only apply in patent cases.
 
25. What are the rules and practice concerning evidence in patent infringement proceedings?

Documents

Documents and affidavits are required and extensively used as evidence in patent infringement proceedings. They should be extensive and comprehensive to build a winning patent litigation strategy.

Witness Evidence

See above, Documents.
Witnesses can only provide their testimony orally during a hearing in the following cases:
  • Death of one of the parties.
  • Kinship between the witness and one of the parties.
  • If the parties have agreed to accept witness testimony as proof, provided that the court accepts the agreement and attach it to the hearing minutes.
(Article 269, Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure.)
The court can also decide on its own motion to base its judgment on the testimony of witnesses where the law allows the use of witness testimony, if the court considers that this serves the interests of justice.
When its decision is based on the testimony of witnesses, the court can call on anyone whose testimony is deemed appropriate to reveal the truth (Article 271, Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure).
Cross-examination of witnesses is prohibited.

Expert Evidence

Expert witnesses are helpful in patent infringement proceedings, due to the basic understanding of judges of patent matters and the technical nature of patents in general.
The court can, when necessary, appoint one or three experts (Article 333, Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure). The court must state in its order:
  • The mandate of the expert and urgent measures that the expert can take.
  • The amount of money that must be deposited with the court treasury to cover the expenses of the expert and their remuneration, the deadline to make the deposit, and the amount that the expert can withdraw to cover their expenses.
  • The deadline for filing the expert report.
If the litigants agree on the appointment of one or three experts, the court will approve their agreement (Article 334, Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure). Otherwise, the court must select the experts that it considers appropriate in the case.
The expert provides their opinion and the court has discretion to accept it. If either party believes that an expert report is not fair, they can apply to the court for the appointment of a new expert.
It is not possible to cross-examine expert witnesses.
A party can also appoint their own private expert to support their case, but the court is not obliged to consider their opinion.
 
26. Is evidence obtained in criminal proceedings admissible in civil proceedings and vice versa?
Evidence obtained in criminal proceedings can be used in civil proceedings and vice versa, if it is sufficient and well supported.
 
27. Is evidence obtained in civil proceedings admissible in other civil proceedings?
Evidence obtained in civil proceedings can be used in other civil proceedings, if it is sufficient and well supported.
 
28. To what extent is pre-trial disclosure permitted and what other mechanisms are available for obtaining evidence from an adverse party or third parties?

Pre-Trial Discovery

Pre-trial discovery is not available in Qatar. Evidence must be obtained through a private investigation firm.

Other Mechanisms

 
29. What level of proof is required for establishing infringement or invalidity/unenforceability?
The law does not expressly state what level of proof is required for the court to establish patent infringement or invalidity/unenforceability. However, the evidence must be sufficient and well supported. The court has discretion to accept or reject the evidence placed before it.
 
30. How long do patent infringement proceedings typically last?
Patent infringement proceedings take approximately 15 months from preliminary injunctions to trial. It generally takes between 18 to 24 months from commencement of proceedings to obtain a first instance decision.
The parties generally seek to resolve issues prior to trial, since court proceedings are expensive and may take a lot of time.

Fast-Track Procedures

Fast-track procedures are not available in Qatar.

Timetable

Parties cannot agree on a binding timetable of the proceedings.

Delay

If the patent holder believes that the other party is delaying a court action, they can apply to the court on this basis and the court will decide on whether to take action (which can include sanctions).
If delay in the submission of an expert report is caused by a litigant, the court can order them to pay a fine not exceeding QAR1,000. A fine order is not subject to appeal. The court can exempt the litigant from the fine if they provide an acceptable excuse. In addition, if one of the parties does not appear before an expert without acceptable reason despite being summoned, the court, on request of the expert, can order that party to pay a fine not exceeding QAR500.

Preliminary Relief

31. Is preliminary relief available, and if so what measures are available and under what conditions?
A patent owner can file a petition with the competent civil court dealing with urgent matters to seek an order for appropriate preventive measures (Article 39, Penal Code).

Search and Preservation/Search and Seize Orders

Injunctions

The law of Qatar provides very little information on preliminary injunction proceedings. The court can accept an urgent application for without notice relief if the case arises.
When a preliminary injunction is granted, the patent holder must start main proceedings to confirm it within ten days from the date of the injunction order.
See Question 19 for information on the availability of cross-border injunctions.

Other

32. Can a defendant file a protective writ?
A defendant cannot file a protective writ in Qatar.
 
33. What is the format/procedure of preliminary injunction proceedings?

General

To start preliminary injunction proceedings, the applicant must file a petition with the competent civil court that deals with urgent matters. The petition must also request the court to order:
  • A detailed descriptive inventory of the counterfeit products that the infringer is trading.
  • The seizure of the products. However, this must not take place until the patent holder has submitted a deposit to the registrar of the court to prove the seriousness of the petition.
In addition, the applicant must provide a preliminary guarantee, the amount of which is decided by the court. The guarantee will be returned to the applicant if any of the following applies:
  • A final judgment is issued in their favour.
  • 90 days have passed from the final judgment and the defendant has not filed for compensation.
  • The final judgment fully compensated the defendant.

Level of Proof

During preliminary injunction proceedings, the applicant must substantively prove:
  • Ownership of the patent.
  • That the patent infringement is still occurring.
  • A detailed explanation of why the actions complained of are infringing.

Evidence

All types of evidence can be used, including documents and court experts.

Patent Validity

The defendant can claim patent invalidity during preliminary injunction proceedings.

Length of Proceedings

Proceedings usually take up to 15 days and cannot be expedited.
 
34. If a preliminary injunction is granted and the main infringement action is finally lost, can the defendant claim damages for the unjustified preliminary injunction?
The defendant can claim damages for an unjustified preliminary injunction within 90 days of issue of the final decision.
The court will appoint an expert to calculate the damages.
The claimant must provide a preliminary guarantee to compensate the defendant for an unjustified preliminary injunction (see Question 33, General).

Final Remedies

35. What remedies are available against a patent infringer?

Permanent Injunction

The grant of a permanent injunction automatically follows a finding of patent infringement. However, the court has discretion to decide on the following:
  • Value of the confiscated products seized that can be discounted from the total compensation amount or fines.
  • Closure of the defendants' premises for between 15 days and six months.
  • Destruction of any counterfeit products.
The permanent injunction must refer to the item alleged to infringe the patent. However, the injunction can be broader in scope if the damages suffered are broader.
The permanent injunction is effective against the infringer and its partners, but not against third parties that are not aware of the infringement.

Monetary Remedies

A party can expect to be awarded between USD2,500 and USD5,000, unless a lawsuit is filed based on unfair competition, in which case compensation is dependent on the losses incurred. However, the amount of monetary compensation may be higher depending on the case.
Damages are assessed by an expert, who issues a report on actual and expected damages.

Delivery up or Destruction of Infringing Goods

The court can order the confiscation of the equipment and material used in the counterfeiting or imitation and the confiscation of the counterfeit or imitated products, even in the event of acquittal.

Publication of the Decision

The court can order publication of the judgment in one or more newspapers at the expense of the losing party.

Recall Order

This is not available in Qatar.

Declaration of Infringement and Validity

This is not available in Qatar.

Other

The court can order the closure of an enterprise for a period of between 15 days and six months.
In criminal proceedings, the infringer is liable to two year's imprisonment or a fine not exceeding QAR10,000, or both (Article 24, Patent Law). This also applies to persons who provide false information to obtain a patent.

Appeal Procedure

36. What avenues of appeal are available for a defeated party and on what basis?
A defeated party in main proceedings can bring an appeal in the court of appeal. There are no specific conditions for bringing an appeal before the court of appeal.
A court order/judgment must be served personally on the judgment debtor at their domicile, and will be void if notification is not carried out within six months of the order/judgment being issued (Article 150, Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure). The debtor can appeal the order within 30 days from the date of being notified. The appeal must be submitted by summoning the judgment creditor to appear before the competent court. All applicable rules for filing a claim apply. The appeal must be supported by evidence (Article 151, Code of Civil and Commercial Procedure).
Appeal proceedings usually last between 12 and 18 months.

Litigation Costs

37. What level of cost should a party expect to incur to take a case through to a first instance decision, preliminary injunction proceedings and appeal proceedings?
A party should not expect to incur more than USD25,000 to take a case through to a first instance decision. The level of cost that a party should expect to incur varies depending on the amount of damages requested in the action.
In principle, the winning party can recover litigation and attorneys' costs from the losing party. However, the actual amount that can be recovered depends on the court's expenses, which are decided at the beginning of the case.
In awarding and assessing costs, the court may take into account factors such as the parties' conduct and offers to settle.

Standard Essential Patents (SEPs), Fair, Reasonable and Non-Discriminatory (FRAND) Licensing, and Anti-Suit Injunctions

38. In addition to the answers to questions 8 and 23, are there any features of your jurisdiction's patent law or litigation procedure that make it attractive or unattractive to either SEP holders or implementers/willing licensees for the resolution of disputes over fair reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND) licensing and standard essential patents (SEPs)?
The local courts have not yet considered FRAND licences and SEPs.
 
39. How should SEP holders negotiate in your jurisdiction to comply with any FRAND undertaking (or RAND undertaking) that they have given in relation to SEPs?
The local courts have not yet considered FRAND licences and SEPs.
 
40. How do courts in your jurisdiction calculate FRAND royalty rates?
The local courts have not yet considered FRAND licences and SEPs.
 
41. To what extent are courts in your jurisdiction willing to grant anti-suit injunctions in the context of disputes over FRAND licensing and SEPs?
The local courts have not yet considered FRAND licences and SEPs.

Contributor Profiles

Bahia Alyafi, Manager

Alyafi IP Group

T +961 741614 
F +961 741614 
E Balyafi@alyafi-ip.com
W http://alyafi-ip.com
Professional qualifications. Arab and GCC countries, IP valuation expert and consultant
Areas of practice. IP; patents.

Lea Feghali, Assistant Manager

Alyafi Ip Group

T +961 741614 
F +961 741614 
E Patent@alyafi-ip.com
W http://alyafi-ip.com
Professional qualifications. Arab and GCC countries, Patent litigation and prosecution
Areas of practice. IP; patents.

 

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