2017 Qaitbey Citadel in Egypt

The island of Pharos was a major port having two huge harbors. The Fort was built in the 1480’s by Sultan Qaitbey, on the site of Alexandria’s ancient lighthouse.

One of the seven wonders of the ancient World, The lantern at the top of the lighthouse remains a mystery. Some say it contained a polished steel mirror that reflected light by day, and fire by night. Others say it was made of transparent glass. The lantern and the top two stories fell around 700 AD according to many reports, and the rest of the lighthouse was destroyed by an earthquake around 1100. In its place a Mosque was built, which was damaged by an earthquake in the 14th century.

The Qaitbay Citadel in Alexandria is considered one of the most important defensive strongholds, not only in Egypt, but also along the Mediterranean Sea coast. It formulated an important part of the fortification system of Alexandria in the 15th century AD.

Links to Phoenician:

  • They established commercial and religious connections with Egypt after about 2613 BC and continued until the end of the Egyptian Old Kingdom
  • The Phoenicians were likely to have built the first lighthouses, there is almost complete agreement that the Phoenicians were the greatest navigators of their era. Being essentially traders, they were not interested in occupying large territories, but to oversee all the ports strategic to their navigation.
  • Cedar trees played an important role in the history of Egypt for several thousand years, being used not only to line the burial crypts of its kings and queens, but also in large temples and buildings. Its oil was even used in the embalming of mummies. This was one of the most important trade products obtained from the Phoenicians of Lebanon.
  • The Egyptian records show foreign boats coming to Egypt, bearing crews from the Levantine coast—as shown by their distinctive beards and embroidered robes. The name which the Egyptians gave to these foreign vessels was “Byblos boats”.
  • The Phoenician purple dye, became the standard adornment of royalty through Egypt.